اثربخشی کاهش استرس مبتنی بر ذهن اگاهی بر اضطراب، انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و تاب‌آوری زنان مطلقه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فوق‌لیسانس روان شناسی بالینی، گروه روان شناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه روان شناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار گروه روان شناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش بررسی اثربخشی کاهش استرس مبتنی بر ذهن آگاهی بر اضطراب، انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و تاب‌آوری زنان مطلقه بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر شامل کلیه زنان مطلقه‌ی شهر مشهد بود که تعداد 27 نفر آز آنها به صورت نمونه گیری در دسترس انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه آزمایشی و کنترل تقسیم شدند . با استفاده از پروتوکول MBSR 8 جلسه 120 دقیقه ایی درمان برای گروه آزمایش صورت گرفت و گروه کنترل هیچ نوع درمانی دریافت نکردند. اطلاعات جمع آوری شده از طریق پرسشنامه اضطراب آشکار و پنهان اشپیلبرگر، پرسشنامه انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و پرسشنامه تاب‌آوری کانر و دیویدسون، با استفاده از Spss25 و تحلیل کوواریانس تک متغیری موردسنجش قرار گرفت. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد درمان کاهش استرس مبتنی بر ذهن آگاهی منجر به کاهش اضطراب آشکار از یک‌سو و بهبود انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی و تاب‌آوری از سوی دیگر شد. ولی این روش درمانی در کاهش اضطراب پنهان افراد تاثیر معنا دار نداشته است. بنابراین با توجه به نتایج پژوهش می‌توان بیان کرد که توجه به مشکلات روان‌شناختی زنان مطلقه امری ضروری است و کاهش استرس مبتنی بر ذهن آگاهی می‌تواند به‌عنوان مداخله‌ای موثر در بهبود مشکلات زنان مطلقه به کار گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Anxiety, Cognitive Flexibility and Resilience of Divorced Mothers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maram Azadegan Mehr 1
  • Mohammad Javad Asgari Ebrahhimabad 2
  • Majid Moeenizadeh 3
1 Master's degree in clinical psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Psychology Department, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant professor of Psychology Department, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction:One of the important and negative effects of divorce is its psychological effects on divorced women and mothers. It is necessary to pay attention to the mental health of these people. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction, anxiety, cognitive flexibility and resilience in divorced women and mothers.
Materials and Methods:The method of the present study was quasi-experimental with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population of the present study included all divorced mothers who live in Mashhad, 27 of whom were selected by available sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The protocol MBSR were applied in 8 sessions which lasts 120-minute and performed for the experimental group only and the control group did not receive any treatment. The data which collected through the Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, the cognitive flexibility inventory, and the Connor and Davidson resilience Questionnaire, were assessed by Spss25 and using univariate analysis of covariance.
Findings:The results showed that mindfulness-based stress reduction leading to reduced manifest anxiety and on the other hand, it improved cognitive flexibility and resiliency. But it was not effective in reducing latent anxiety people.
Conclusion:Therefore, according to the results of the study, it can be stated that attention to psychological problems of divorced women is necessary and mindfulness-based stress reduction can be used as an effective intervention in improving the problems of divorced women and mothers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
  • anxiety
  • Cognitive Flexibility
  • Resilience
  • Divorced women

1.    Asanjarani F, Jazayeri RS, Fatehizade M, Etemadi, O. &, Demol J. Exploring factors affecting post-divorce adjustment in Iranian women: A qualitative study. Soc Determ Heal. 2017;3(1):15–25. https://doi.org/10.22037/sdh.v3i1.17705

2.    Balali T, Etemadi O, Fatehizadeh M. The Study of Relationship Between Psychological Factors and Demographic Characteristics Predicting Post Divorce Adjustment Among Divorced Women in Isfahan. Q Couns Cult Psychother. 2011;2(5):29–53. [doi:10.22054/QCCPC.2011.5900]

3.    Zafar N, Kausar R. Emotional and social problems in divorced and married women. Education [Internet]. 2014;2350:21-22. Available from: http://sbbwu.edu.pk/journal/FWU_Journal_Summer2014,Vol.8,No.1/5_Emotional_and_Social_Problems_in_Divorced.pdf

4.    John S, Nelson D V. Littleton, H., Horsley, S., Trauma coping strategies and psychological distress: a meta‐analysis. J Trauma Stress Off Publ Int Soc Trauma Stress Stud. 2007;20(6):977–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20276

5.    Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry [Internet]. Tehran: Arjmand; 2015. Available from: https://www.amazon.com/Kaplan-Sadocks-Synopsis-Psychiatry-Behavioral/dp/1609139712

6.    Azarhoosh Fatideh N. The effectiveness of Forgiveness group therapy in reducing anxiety, anger and increases of hope in divorces’ women. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad; 2017.

7.    Dennis JP, Vander Wal JS. The cognitive flexibility inventory: Instrument development and estimates of reliability and validity. Cognit Ther Res. 2010;34(3):241-253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4

8.    Powell EM, Ragozzino ME. Cognitive flexibility: Development, disease and treatment. Neuroscience. 2016;345:1–2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9276-4

9.    Gabrys RL, Tabri N, Anisman H, Matheson K. Cognitive control and flexibility in the context of stress and depressive symptoms: The cognitive control and flexibility questionnaire. Front Psychol. 2018;9:1–19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02219

10. Johnco C, Wuthrich VM, Rapee RM. The influence of cognitive flexibility on treatment outcome and cognitive restructuring skill acquisition during cognitive behavioural treatment for anxiety and depression in older adults: Results of a pilot study. Behav Res Ther. 2014;57:55–64. https://doi.org/ 0.1016/j.brat.2014.04.005. Epub 2014 Apr 24

11. Johnson BJ. The Relationship Between Cognitive Flexibility, Coping, and Symptomatology in Psychotherapy [Internet]. Marquette University; 2016. Available from: https://epublications.marquette.edu/theses_open/354/

12. Carlton BS, Goebert DA, Miyamoto RH, Andrade NN, Hishinuma ES, Makini Jr GK, et al. Resilience, family adversity and well-being among Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2006;52(4):291–308. http://dio.org/10.1177/0020764006065136

13. Herrman H, Stewart DE, Diaz-Granados N, Berger EL, Jackson B, Yuen T. What is resilience? Can J Psychiatry. 2011;56(5):258–65. https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371105600504

14. Southwick SM, Bonanno GA, Masten AS, Panter-Brick C, Yehuda R. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014;5(1):1–15. https://doi.org/10.3402/ejpt.v5.25338

15. Lamond AJ, Depp CA, Allison M, Langer R, Reichstadt J, Moore DJ, et al. Measurement and predictors of resilience among community-dwelling older women. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;43(2):148-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.03.007

16. Bishop M, Stenhoff DM, Shepard L. Psychosocial Adaptation and Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis: Assessment of the Disability Centrality Model. J Rehabil [Internet]. 2007;73(1):3–12. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287698752_Psychosocial_adaptation_and_quality_of_life_in_multiple_sclerosis_Assessment_of_the_disability_centrality_model

17. Lee JE, Sudom KA, Zamorski MA. Longitudinal analysis of psychological resilience and mental health in Canadian military personnel returning from overseas deployment. J Occup Health Psychol. 2013;18(3):327–37. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033059

18. Jain FA, Walsh RN, Eisendrath SJ, Christensen S, Rael Cahn B. "Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review. Psychosomatics. 2015;56(2):140–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2014.10.007. ISSN 0033-3182.

19. Kabat-Zinn J, Hanh TN. Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition): Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness [Internet]. New York, NY: Bantam; 2009. Available from: https://www.amazon.com/Full-Catastrophe-Living-Revised-Illness-ebook/dp/B00C4BA3UK

20. Crane R. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Distinctive Features [Internet]. routledge. Taylor & Francis; 2017. Available from: https://www.routledge.com/Mindfulness-Based-Cognitive-Therapy-Distinctive-Features/Crane/p/book/9781138643222

21. Hofmann SG, Sawyer AT, Witt AA, Oh D. he effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78(2):169–83. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018555

22. Krishna RM. Mindfulness: the untapped innate catalyst for healing, happiness and health. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2014;107(12):649–51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25790588/

23. Fallahi MA, Deldar F. The investigating Factors affecting divorce with emphasis on economic in Iranian provinces. J Cult women Fam [Internet]. 2016;10(34):135–55. Available from: https://cwfs.ihu.ac.ir/article_201683.html?lang=fa

24. Behdani F, Srgozary M, Gorbani A. The study of relationship between stress, depression and anxiety in Sabzevar’s students, Asrar. J Med Sci Heal Serv. 2001;7(2):27–37. https://www.sid.ir/fa/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=25531

25. Mahram B. Standardization of anxiety, mood, and quality in the city of Mashhad. Allameh Tabatabaei University; 1994. http://d-lib.atu.ac.ir/site/catalogue/64428

26. Rouhi G, Rahmani H, Abdullahi A, Mahmoudi G. The impact of music on anxiety and some physiologic variables of patients before abdominal surgery. J Med Sci Univ Gorgan. 2006;7(1):75–8. http://goums.ac.ir/journal/article-1-18-fa.html

27. Fathi Ashtiyani A. Psychological - Personality and Health Evaluation Tests. Besat publisher; 2011. https://www.adinehbook.com/gp/product/6005116274

28. Hosseini J, Mahdavi Nystani Z, Hashemi S, Abbasi S. The investigation of relationship between cognitive flexibility and Psychological stubbornness with Mental happiness and burnout in female-headed households. In: The Conference of National Science and Technology Education, and Social Studies and Psychology. Tehran: organizer Institute of science and technology development-oriented conferences by Sam Iranians; 2015. https://civilica.com/doc/467842/

29. Share H, RoienFard MR, Haghi E. The Effectiveness of Heimberg and Becker Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Improving Female Adolescents Social Anxiety and Cognitive Flexibility. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci [Internet]. 2014;2(21):226–40. Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=398153

30. Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor‐Davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC). Depress Anxiety. 2003;18(2):76–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001

31. Campbell-Sills L, Cohan SL, Stein MB. Relationship of resilience to personality, coping, and psychiatric symptoms in young adults. Behav Res Ther. 2006;44(4):585–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.05.001

32. Mohammadi M, Jazayeri M, Rafee H, Jovkar B, Poorshahnaz A. RESILIENCE FACTORS IN INDIVIDUALS AT RISK FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE. J Psychol (TABRIZ Univ [Internet]. 2006;1(2–3):203–24. Available from: https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=75843

33. Ghasemian D, Kuzehkanan, A. Z Hassanzadeh R. Effectiveness of MBCT on decreased anxiety and depression among divorced women living in Tehran, Iran. J Nov Appl Sci [Internet]. 2014;3(3):256–9. Available from: http://jnasci.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/256-259.pdf

34. Akbari Daqhi H, Koushki S, Jamali M, Salehi M. Effectiveness of Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on symptoms of stress and anxiety in cardiovascular patients, follow-up of 60 days. J Sci Res 7 [Internet]. 2012;7(29):1–25. Available from: http://edu.bojnourdiau.ac.ir/article_518084.html

35. Ong MSY. The gift of the present: examining the mediating role of mindfulness in the procrastination-health model. Nanyang Technological University.; 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhp.2016.01.001

36. Nila K, Holt D V, Ditzen B, Aguilar-Raab C. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) enhances distress tolerance and resilience through changes in mindfulness. Ment Heal Prev. 2016;4(1):36–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760902819394

37. Orzech KM, Shapiro SL, Brown KW, McKay M. Intensive mindfulness training-related changes in cognitive and emotional experience. J Posit Psychol. 2009;4(3):212–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760902819394

38. Kazemi H, Shojaei F, Soltanizadeh M. The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Intervention on Psychological Flexibility, Distress Tolerance, and Re-Experiencing the Trauma in Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. MCS [Internet]. 2018;4(4):236–48. Available from: http://mcs.ajaums.ac.ir/article-1-187-fa.html

39. Franken M, Zamara S, Desham J, Viliams V. The effect of mindfulness over quality of life and resilience: A Guide for divorced woman. Behav Brain Res. 2014;196:1–10.

40. Zamiry A, Ahmadi P, Chang MS, Saghaeyan R. The effectiveness of mindfulness on resiliency and psychological well-being of divorced women, The first National Conference on Psychology and families. In: The first National Conference on Psychology and families, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz. Khuzestan; 2015. https://civilica.com/doc/540032/

41. Baghernejad A, Mousavi N. The effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction program launched on marital adjustment Resiliency with addicted husband. In: The World Conference on new horizons in the humanities, Futurology and empowerment. Shiraz; 2015.